# Fitting Models¶

## Fitter Objects¶

MenpoFit has specialised classes for performing a fitting process that are
called Fitters. All Fitter objects are subclasses of
`MultiScaleNonParametricFitter`

and `MultiScaleParametricFitter`

.
The main difference between those two is that a `MultiScaleParametricFitter`

optimises over the parameters of a statistical shape model, whereas
`MultiScaleNonParametricFitter`

optimises directly the coordinates of a shape.

Their behaviour can differ depending on the deformable model. For example,
a Lucas-Kanade AAM fitter (`LucasKanadeAAMFitter`

) assumes that you
have trained an AAM model (assume the aam we trained in the
Building section) and can be created as:

```
from menpofit.aam import LucasKanadeAAMFitter, WibergInverseCompositional
fitter = LucasKanadeAAMFitter(aam,
lk_algorithm_cls=WibergInverseCompositional,
n_shape=[5, 10, 15], n_appearance=150)
```

The constructor of the Fitter will set the active shape and appearance components based on n_shape and n_appearance respectively, and will also perform all the necessary pre-computations based on the selected algorithm.

However, there are deformable models that are directly defined through a
Fitter object, which is responsible for training the model as well.
`SupervisedDescentFitter`

is a good example. The reason for that is that
the fitting process is utilised during the building procedure, thus the
functionality of a Fitter is required. Such models can be built as:

```
from menpofit.sdm import SupervisedDescentFitter, NonParametricNewton
fitter = SupervisedDescentFitter(training_images, group='PTS',
sd_algorithm_cls=NonParametricNewton,
verbose=True)
```

Information about a Fitter can be retrieved by:

```
print(fitter)
```

## Fitting Methods¶

All the deformable models that are currently implemented in MenpoFit, which
are the state-of-the-art approaches in current literature, aim to find a
*local optimum* of the cost function that they try to optimise, given an
initialisation. The initialisation can be seen as an initial estimation of
the target shape. MenpoFit’s Fitter objects provide two functions for fitting
the model to an image:

```
result = fitter.fit_from_shape(image, initial_shape, max_iters=20, gt_shape=None,
return_costs=False, **kwargs)
```

or

```
result = fitter.fit_from_bb(image, bounding_box, max_iters=20, gt_shape=None,
return_costs=False, **kwargs)
```

They only differ on the type of initialisation. `fit_from_shape`

expects a
PointCloud as the initial_shape. On the other hand, the bounding_box
argument of `fit_from_bb`

is a PointDirectedGraph of 4 vertices that
represents the initial bounding box. The bounding box is used in order to
align the model’s reference shape and use the resulting PointCloud as the
initial shape. Such a bounding box can be retrieved using the detection
methods of **menpodetect**. The rest of the options are:

**max_iters**(int or list of int)Defines the maximum number of iterations. If int, then it specifies the maximum number of iterations over all scales. If list of int, then it specifies the maximum number of iterations per scale. Note that this does not apply on all deformable models. For example, it can control the number of iterations of a Lucas-Kanade optimisation algorithm, but it does not affect the fitting of a cascaded-regression method (e.g. SDM) which has a predefined number of cascades (iterations).

**gt_shape**(PointCloud or None)The ground truth shape associated to the image. This is

*only*useful to compute the final fitting error. It is*not*used, of course, at any internal stage of the optimisation.**return_costs**(bool)If

`True`

, then the cost function values will be computed during the fitting procedure. Then these cost values will be assigned to the returned fitting_result. Note that the costs computation increases the computational cost of the fitting. The additional computation cost depends on the fitting method. Thus, this option should only be used for research purposes. Finally, this argument does not apply to all deformable models.**kwargs**(dict)Additional keyword arguments that can be passed to specific models.

The next section (Result) presents the basics of the fitting result.